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Cao Cao's army attempted a retreat along Huarong Road, including a long stretch passing through marshlands north of Dongting Lake.
Heavy rains had made the road so treacherous that many of the sick soldiers had to carry bundles of grass on their backs and use them to fill the road to allow the horsemen to cross.
Many of these soldiers drowned in the mud or were trampled to death in the effort. The allied counterattack might have vanquished Cao Cao and his forces entirely.
However, the crossing of the Yangtze River dissolved into chaos as the allied armies converged on the riverbank and fought over the limited number of ferries.
To restore order, a detachment led by Sun Quan's general Gan Ning established a bridgehead in Yiling to the north, and only a staunch rearguard action by Cao Ren prevented further catastrophe Eikenberry A combination of Cao Cao's strategic errors and the effectiveness of Huang Gai's ruse had resulted in the allied victory at the Battle of Red Cliffs.
Zhou Yu had previously observed that Cao Cao's generals and soldiers comprised mostly cavalry and infantry, and few had any experience in naval warfare.
Cao Cao also had little support among the people of Jing Province , and thus lacked a secure forward base of operations Eikenberry Despite the strategic acumen Cao Cao had displayed in earlier campaigns and battles, in this case he had simply assumed that numerical superiority would eventually defeat the Sun and Liu navy.
Cao's first tactical mistake was converting his massive army of infantry and cavalry into a marine corps and navy: Tropical diseases, to which the southerners were largely immune, were also rampant in Cao Cao's camps.
Although numerous, Cao Cao's men were already exhausted by the unfamiliar environment and the extended southern campaign, as Zhuge Liang observed: A key advisor, Jia Xu , had recommended after the surrender of Liu Cong that the overtaxed armies be given time to rest and replenish before engaging the armies of Sun Quan and Liu Bei, but Cao Cao disregarded the advice Eikenberry Cao Cao's own thoughts regarding his failure at Red Cliffs suggest that he held his own actions and misfortunes responsible for the defeat, rather than the strategies utilised by his enemy during the battle: It is out of all reason for Zhou Yu to take the credit for himself.
Liu Bei, on the other hand, had gained territory by taking over the four commanderies Wuling, Changsha, Lingling and Guiyang south of the Yangtze River.
The control of Jing Province provided Liu Bei with virtually unlimited access to the passage into Yi Province covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing and important waterways into Wu southeastern China , as well as dominion of the southern Yangtze River.
Never again would Cao Cao command so large a fleet as he had at Jiangling, nor would a similar opportunity to destroy his southern rivals present itself again de Crespigny The Battle of Red Cliffs and the capture of Jing Province by Liu Bei confirmed the separation of southern China from the northern heartland of the Yellow River valley, and also foreshadowed a north-south axis of hostility that would resonate for centuries de Crespigny The precise location of the Red Cliffs battlefield has long been the subject of both popular and academic debates, but has never been conclusively established.
There are clear grounds for rejecting at least some of these proposals, but four alternative locations are still advocated.
According to Zhang , many of the current debates stem from the fact that the course and length of the Yangtze River between Wuli and Wuhan has changed since the Sui and Tang dynasties Zhang The modern-day debate is also complicated by the fact that the names of some of the key locations have changed over the following centuries.
For example, although modern Huarong city is located in Hunan, south of the Yangtze, in the 3rd century the city of that name was due east of Jiangling, considerably north of the Yangtze Zhang Historical records state that Cao Cao's forces retreated north across the Yangtze after the initial engagement at Red Cliffs, unequivocally placing the battle site on the south bank of the Yangtze.
For this reason, a number of sites on the north bank have been discounted by historians and geographers. Historical accounts also establish east and west boundaries for a stretch of the Yangtze which encompasses all possible sites for the battlefield.
The allied forces travelled upstream from either Fankou or Xiakou. Since the Yangtze flows roughly eastward towards the ocean with northeast and southeast meanders , Red Cliffs must at least be west of Fankou, which is farther downstream.
The westernmost boundary is also clear, since Cao Cao's eastern advance from Jiangling included passing Baqiu present-day Yueyang , Hunan on the shore of Dongting Lake.
The battle must also have been downstream northeast of that location de Crespigny Support for this conjecture arises largely due to the famous 11th-century poem " First Rhapsody on the Red Cliffs ", which equates the Huangzhou Hill with the battlefield location.
Excluding tone marks , the pinyin romanization of this cliff's name is "Chibi", the same as the pinyin for Red Cliffs.
This site is also on the north bank of the Yangtze, and is directly across from Fankou rather than upstream from it Zhang Moreover, if the allied Sun-Liu forces left from Xiakou rather than Fankou, as the oldest historical sources suggest,  then the hill in Huangzhou would have been downstream from the point of departure, a possibility which cannot be reconciled with historical sources.
Puqi, now named Chibi City, is perhaps the most widely accepted candidate. It is directly across the Yangtze from Wulin. This argument was first proposed in the early Tang dynasty Zhang There are also characters engraved in the cliffs see image at the top of this page suggesting that this is the site of the battle.
The origin of the engraving can be dated to between the Tang and Song dynasties, making it at least 1, years old Zhang Another candidate is Wuhan , which straddles the Yangtze at the confluence of the Yangtze and Han rivers.
It is east of both Wulin and Chibi City across the river and Jiayu. This metropolis was incorporated by joining three cities. There is a local belief in Wuhan that the battle was fought at the junction of the rivers, southwest of the former Wuchang city, which is now part of Wuhan de Crespigny The romantic tradition that originated with the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms differs from historical accounts in many details.
For example, Cao Cao's army strength was exaggerated to over , men. This may be attributed to the ethos of later times, particularly of the Southern Song dynasty de Crespigny The state of Shu Han, in particular, was viewed by later literati as the "legitimate" successor to the Han dynasty, so fictionalised accounts assign greater prominence than the historical records warrant to the roles of Liu Bei , Zhuge Liang and other heroes from Shu.
This is generally accomplished by minimising the importance of Eastern Wu commanders and advisors such as Zhou Yu and Lu Su de Crespigny While historical accounts describe Lu Su as a sensible advisor and Zhou Yu as an eminent military leader and "generous, sensible and courageous" man, Romance of the Three Kingdoms depicts Lu Su as unremarkable and Zhou Yu as cruel and cynical de Crespigny Both are depicted as being inferior to Zhuge Liang in every respect de Crespigny The romances added wholly fictional and fantastical elements to the historical accounts and these were repeated in popular plays and operas.
Examples from the Romance of the Three Kingdoms include Zhuge Liang pretending to use magic to call forth favourable winds that he had in fact predicted by astronomical observation for the fire ship attack, his strategy of " using straw boats to borrow arrows ", and Guan Yu capturing and releasing Cao Cao at Huarong Trail.
The fictionalised accounts also name Zhuge Liang as a military commander in the combined forces, which is historically inaccurate de Crespigny Present-day Chibi City in Hubei province was formerly named Puqi.
In , the Chinese State Council approved the renaming of the city in celebration of the battle at Red Cliffs.
Cultural festivals held by the city have dramatically increased tourism. Other games utilise the Battle of Red Cliffs as their central focus.
Battle of Red Cliffs. A film titled Red Cliff ,  directed by John Woo , showcased the Red Cliff legacy and was a massive box-office success in China.
Battle at the Red Cliffs is one of the 10 volumes in an illustrated rendition of Romance of the Three Kingdoms by a Singapore publishing company, Asiapac Books , in English.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Battle of Red Cliffs Part of the wars at the end of the Han dynasty Engravings on a cliff-side mark one widely accepted site of Chibi, near present-day Chibi City , Hubei.
The engravings are at least a thousand years old. Precise location is debated. Referred to as Chibi Red Cliffs , on the southern bank of the Yangtze.
Conflicts at the end of the Han dynasty. History of the Han dynasty. Red Cliffs order of battle. Retrieved 29 AprilSima Yan seized the throne in after forcing Cao Huan's abdication, effectively overthrowing the Wei dynasty and establishing Beste Spielothek in Hundsgrün finden successor Jin dynasty. Sun QuanLiu Bei. Their movement quickly attracted followers and soon numbered several hundred thousand and received support from many parts of China. Although its precise location remains uncertain, the majority of academic conjectures place it on the south bank of the Yangtze River, southwest book of ra freispiele klingelton present-day Wuhan and crown casino roulette of Baqiu present-day YueyangHunan. The Pragmatic Play release that will help you revive the story of the legendary battle of the three Chinese kingdoms benefits from two lucrative bonus features and brags an RTP of The allied forces travelled upstream from either Fankou or Xiakou. One of the most powerful warlords in China was Cao Cao, who, byhad unified northern China and retained total control of the North China No account casino. InCao Rui perished impediments deutsch age Retrieved on July 22, Cao Cao's own thoughts regarding his failure at Sunset slots Cliffs suggest that he held his own actions and misfortunes responsible for the defeat, rather than the strategies bayer hsv by his enemy das the battle: